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        智庫中國 > 

        生態文明理念下現代城市發展轉型的策略

        來源:中國網 | 作者:?肖漢平 | 時間:2019-05-23 | 責編:王琳_觀點

        肖漢平 中國人民大學長江經濟帶研究院高級研究員

        縱觀世界文明發展歷史,人類社會經歷了部落文明、農耕文明和工業文明幾個不同的發展階段,目前正處于工業文明向生態文明轉換時期。推動生態文明發展,建設美麗中國,是實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢的重要內容。習近平總書記2019年4月在中國北京世界園藝博覽會開幕式上發表的《共謀綠色生活,共建美麗家園》講話中明確指出:生態文明建設已經納入中國國家發展總體布局,建設美麗中國已經成為中國人民心向往之的奮斗目標。

        作為工業文明的產物,現代城市已經成為人們工作和生活的家園,全球超過一半的人口居住在城市,2018年我國城鎮常住人口83137萬人,占總人口比重為59.58%。隨著我國走向生態文明的新時代,城市發展范式更需要體現生態文明的基本內涵。

        一、工業文明催生現代城市、大都市區和城市群,但也導致困擾人們生活的“城市病”,引發生態危機,引爆綠色發展浪潮,孕育生態文明新時代。  

        自從工業革命在英國發生之后,人類社會開始邁入工業文明時代。工業文明不但帶來了社會生產力的巨大發展和科學技術的巨大進步,而且也導致了社會結構、社會制度、社會思想文化和人們生活方式的巨大變革。工業革命催生了現代城市,加快經濟要素的空間集聚,有效提高了生產生活效率,也打破了人類幾千年來以農村為主導的社會空間結構形態,催生了現代城市。而現代城市重塑了人類社會互動與合作的機制,強化了資源配置的規模效應和集聚效應,促進了分工和專業化,推動了創新,使財富得以被更大規模地創造和積累。工業文明前所未有地改變了人類社會利用資源的類型、范圍和強度,城市為這樣的改變提供了空間和機制上的支持,城市本身也因此得到快速的擴張。城市在空間形態和結構上也在發生新的變化:大都市區化、城市群迅速崛起,并成為一種令人矚目的全球性經濟空間現象。

        隨著城市規模的擴大,對能源、電力和水資源的消耗,以及對交通、教育、醫療等公共服務的需求不斷提高,加之,新興超大城市由于形成速度更快、人口規模更大、空間尺度更廣,導致一系列困擾城市發展的“城市病”,即:城市在發展過程中出現的交通擁擠、住房緊張、供水不足、能源緊缺、環境污染、秩序混亂,以及物質流、能量流的輸入、輸出失去平衡,需求矛盾加劇等問題。工業文明的困境催生綠色發展浪潮,形成相較于工業文明更高級別的生態文明。從某種意義上講,生態文明是工業文明發展到一定階段的產物,是人與自然協調發展的新要求。生態文明既是對工業文明的精華的繼承,又是對工業文明的超越。

        二、以生態保護、綠色發展為內核的生態文明需要城市建立“經濟和生態可持續”的發展新范式。  

        生態文明是以人與自然、人與人的和諧共生、全面發展和持續繁榮為宗旨的文化倫理形態。生態保護,綠色發展是生態文明建設的本質要求。從黨的十七大第一次提出了“生態文明”的概念,到黨的十八大將其作為戰略任務,提出經濟建設、政治建設、文化建設、社會建設、生態文明建設“五位一體”的總體布局,對生態文明的重視程度達到了前所未有的高度。習近平總書記在2019年中國北京世界園藝博覽會開幕式上的講話明確指出:“縱觀人類文明發展史,生態興則文明興,生態衰則文明衰。工業化進程創造了前所未有的物質財富,也產生了難以彌補的生態創傷。殺雞取卵、竭澤而漁的發展方式走到了盡頭,順應自然、保護生態的綠色發展昭示著未來。”  

        城市發展的本質是人類對自然環境占有和改造的過程,也是人類對自身賴以生存的自然生態環境的認識與適應過程。無論是過去、現在還是未來,城市的發展質量在很大程度上取決于人類對城市的認知和定位,更取決于城市的規劃和建設理念。在20世紀70年代聯合國教科文組織發起的“人與生物圈”計劃研究過程中正式提出了“生態城市”概念。生態城市是按生態學原理建立起來的社會、經濟、自然協調發展,生態良性循環的人類聚居地。從上世紀70年代提出以來,生態城市經歷了從構想和概念到目標體系,再到具體行動的演進過程。  國內外一些城市紛紛出臺以生態城市理念為指導的城市規劃,開展生態城市建設實踐,但真正成功實現城市生態化發展轉型的城市并不多。隨著全球城市化加速發展和城市病日益突出,如何探索出未來可持續發展城市模式,成為一個時代命題。基于全球城市發展實踐,2009年世界銀行發起的“Eco2城市倡議”,即:Eco2城市或生態經濟城市。旨在為發展中國家的城市建立一種新的經濟發展模式。Eco2城市將經濟發展與可持續發展結合起來,使可持續經濟發展成為城市未來成功的必要條件。生態經濟城市(Eco2城市)是生態城市和經濟城市的疊加,是城市發展理念的新范式,它既不同于工業文明的經濟城市,是一種促進環境和經濟可持續的城市發展的經濟發達并生態友好城市范式。

        隨著我國邁向生態文明的時代,建立人與自然和諧共處的新型城市成為一項重要的戰略選擇。在這種新興城市里,不僅經濟發達,而且環境優美,生態友好,這種新型城市就是生態經濟城市。通過生態經濟城市的建設實現經濟增長、生態環境改善,人們生活質量改善有機協調,從而滿足不斷增長的人民對美好生活的需求。

        三、公園城市是生態文明視閾下的城市發展新范式和高質量背景下的城市規劃、建設和管理新模式探索實踐。  

        中國作為一個正處于城市化快速發展中的經濟和人口大國,正面臨快速城市化所帶來的前所未有的城市問題。習近平總書記指出,要正確處理好經濟發展同生態環境保護的關系,牢固樹立保護生態環境就是保護生產力、改善生態環境就是發展生產力的理念。因此,如何在新時代探索出適合中國國情的生態和經濟可持續的城市發展模式,直接關系到中華民族偉大復興的中國夢的實現。  

        習近平總書記2018年2月在視察四川天府新區時指出,天府新區是“一帶一路”建設和長江經濟帶發展的重要節點,一定要規劃好建設好,特別是要突出公園城市特點,把生態價值考慮進去,努力打造新的增長極,建設內陸開放經濟高地。公園城市既非簡單的經濟城市,也非簡單的生態城市,而是經濟可持續和生態可持續有機融合的生態經濟城市的鏡像。正因為如此,在公園城市的建設過程中,城市建設的目的不只是為了去實現一個或幾個經濟指標,而且要運用現代科技建造新的建筑,拓展市民的生存空間,讓城市有更多空間用于綠色發展,為市民提供更宜居的生活環境,從而更好地滿足人民日益增長的優美生態環境需要。本質上講,公園城市既是基于綠色發展理念的城市發展范式的探索,又是城市經濟和生態可持續發展的必然選擇,更是高質量背景下的城市規劃、建設和管理新模式的探索實踐。  

        追本溯源,城市的發展是人追求自身發展的空間反映,也是人與自然關系或人類文明在空間上映射。正如《城市的故事》作者約翰·里德所說,“城市是人類文明的明確產物,人類所有的成就和失敗,都微縮進它的物質和社會結構——在物質上的體現是建筑,而文化上則體現了它的社會生活。”作為一種城市發展理念,生態經濟城市是對工業文明視閾下城市發展所帶來的困境反思的產物,而公園城市作為一種具體的城市形態的提出,從某種意義上講,是生態經濟城市理念在中國城市發展范式中的一種具體實現方式。公園城市建設不僅要充分體現了“以人民為中心”的發展思想,而且要體現人與自然和諧共生的綠色發展新理念,更要體現我國推進城市化發展模式和路徑轉變的理論創新。(責任編輯 李曉曼)

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