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        智庫中國 > 

        好大學還是好專業,我該怎么選?

        來源:新華網 | 作者:熊丙奇 | 時間:2019-06-10 | 責編:李曉曼

        熊丙奇 21世紀教育研究院副院長
        2019年高考已經順利結束。考生和家長很快又將面臨上面這樣令人糾結的問題——志愿填報。到底該選好大學還是選好專業?
          對此,我的建議是:“一本選學校,二本、三本選專業”。隨著新高考改革的推進,在取消錄取批次后,選擇院校和專業的基本原則應該是:通識教育院校選學校,職業教育院校選專業。
        為什么一本(第一批次或重點院校批次)要選學校?
          第一,第一批次院校主要包含985高校、211院校以及地方建設的重點本科院校。總體來看,第一批次院校的辦學層次、辦學質量各有千秋。如果能夠進入一所更好的大學,可能意味著有機會獲得更多教育資源。
          第二,第一批次院校大部分實行通識教育。通識教育的基本特點是淡化專業界限、擴寬專業面。這些學校的辦學目標是培養學術性人才,是以培養學生基礎能力為導向,更關注學生基本能力和素質的培養,核心競爭力的培養。
          第三,這些院校指定了許多配套政策,給予學生更多的發展空間。
        一是轉專業政策。有的學校會有30%的指標,允許學生在大學一年級結束時換專業,包括從文科專業換到理科專業。大部分實行換專業政策的學校,會對申請換專業的學生提出GPA要求,也有學校提出“零門檻”申請換專業,但需要在換專業時對申請的同學進行考核。
          因此,在選擇大學時,考生可以提前了解大學是否有換專業政策。如果有,高考升學時沒有進入理想專業,就可以通過換專業換到自己感興趣的專業。當然,對于換專業政策,也需理性看待,如果換專業不成功,則需要安心學好本專業。
          二是輔修政策。即主修A專業,學有余力可以選修B專業的核心課程,通過B專業的核心課程考核后,可以獲得B專業的輔修證書。這在很大程度上拓寬了同學們的選擇面,可以在大學里多學習自己感興趣的專業內容。但這也對同學們提出了更高的要求,既要學好本專業,又要投入精力學好輔修專業課程。
           三是跨校選課。即在A學校讀書,可以跨校選B學校的專業課程,通過B學校的專業課程學習,積累一定的學分,可以獲得B學校的相關專業或課程證書。這需要A、B學校之間建立學分互認制度。此外,同學們還可以通過在線教育方式,學習其他學校,包括國外大學的課程。
          在互聯網時代,學習資源已經十分豐富,同學們想學自己感興趣的專業內容,并不是什么難事,關鍵在于自己是否愿意投入精力。有不少同學在進大學之前,特別關注大學有沒有換專業政策、輔修政策,但是進入大學之后,卻是另外一副模樣,沒有明確的目標,放松對自己的要求,雖然大學提供了很多學習機會,但很多同學卻并沒有把握住。
          因此,在第一批次選擇院校、專業時,應先關注學校;在定位院校后,再選擇適合自己的專業。當然,如果有明確的專業興趣,則應根據專業興趣選擇適合自己實力的院校。
        為什么第二批次、第三批次(二本、三本)選專業呢?
          首先,總體來看,目前安排在第二批次、第三批次招生的院校,辦學質量、辦學層次并沒有多大的差異,不像第一批次院校間差別那么大。在這種情況下,需要更關注學校的辦學特點、特色專業。
          其次,從辦學定位看,二本、三本院校的辦學定位,應該是進行職業教育,培養職業技術人才、應用技術人才。這樣的辦學定位應是以就業為導向的。考生在選擇時,就應該關注能更好就業的專業。
          與此同時,我們也不得不承認,目前的高等教育發展存在一定結構與社會需求失衡的問題,許多高等院校沒有清晰的定位,在學術型大學和職業型大學的目標間來回搖擺。
          在這種矛盾的情況下,本應進行通識教育的大學,為迎合學生和家長的需求,在職業培訓上也花費了很多精力;應該進行職業教育的高校,反而舍本逐末地追求學術型大學的發展目標,導致不少地方本科院校以學生,只能把考研作為唯一的出路。
             因此,大學應明確自己的定位,考生和家長也要有長遠的發展規劃,清楚自己適合成為學術型人才還是成為技能型人才。


         

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